The International Research Foundation for English Language Education is pleased to share these reference lists with researchers and teachers throughout the world. They are stored as Word documents so that they will be dynamic tools. You may download them and use them at your convenience.

Many thanks to those people who have contributed references to these lists: Adalyat Akbarova, Basma Issa Tlelan Al-Saleem, Khalid Al-Seghayer, Mansoor Al-Surmi, Kholoud Al-Thubaiti, Lubie Grujicic-Alatriste, Neil Anderson, Sal Attardo, Netta Avineri, Kathi Bailey, Christina Baldarelli, Federica Barbieri, Arvanoush Boudaghians, Ken Boyte, Ruth Breeze, Donna Brinton, Robert Broom, JD Brown, Emese Bukor, Suresh Canagarajah, Ben Carignan, Kasey Carmichael, Michael Carrier, Ruth Castillo, Center for English Language Learning and Assessment at ETS, Namju Cha, Virak Chan, Nayyer Chandella, Meng Huat Chau, Liying Cheng, Cameron Chien, Julie Choi, Donna Christian, Fei-yu Chuang, Hywel Coleman, Drake Cottman, Graham Crookes, Martha Clark Cummings, Andy Curtis, Jinhuei Dai, Ryan Damerow, Flora Debora Floris, Peter DeCosta, Kelly Donovan, Patsy Duff, Sean Dulmaine, Carol Edwards, Keith Folse, Fiodhna Gardiner-Hyland, Mike Garnett, Carol Genetti, Lynn Goldstein, Stephen Hall, Jeff Hamilton, John Hedgcock, Kris Hiller, Stephen Nakamura Hofstee, Kendall P. Hornbacher, Amir Hossain, Ching-Ni Hsieh, Yo In’nami, Jin “Ivan” Yinxing, Rachel Josephs, Renée Jourdenais, Mia Jun, Ferit Kılıçkaya, Joyce Kling Soren, Takako Kobayashi, Erika Kerekes, Sarah Young Knowles, Anita Krishnan, Silvia Kunitz, Stuart Landers, Sky Lantz-Wagner, Diane Larsen-Freeman, Heekyeong Lee, Zhi Li, Amanda Liles, Kuan-Ling Lin, Ting-An Lin, Nico Lorenzutti, Megan Luce, Yumiko Maehara, S. Susan Marandi, Numa Markee, Timothy Marquette, Jeremy Martin, Danny McCarthy, Hedy McGarrell, Parisa Mehran, Jeffrey Mehring, Florin Mihai, Rosamond Mitchell, Keri Ann Moore, Nick Morales, Lucie Moussu, JoAnn Mulready-Shick, Greer Murphy, Yoshiyuki Nakata, Joseph C. Nevarez, Melanie Newman Morrow, Rebecca Noreen, David Nunan, Pablo M. Oliva, Courtney Pahl, Matthew Poehner, Lucy Pickering, Kerry Purmensky, Manuel Jiménez Raya, Patricia Richard-Amato, Jack C. Richards, Tamatha Roman, Ksan Rubadeau, Cicely Rude, Kazuya Saito, Thor Sawin, Peter Shaw, Tony Silva, Sarah Springer, Philip J. Standlee, Charles Stansfield, Lauren Stephenson, Chris Stillwell, Nic Subtirelu, Kristina Swamy, Steven Talmy, David Gasbarro Tasker, Laura J. Taylor, Brian Tomlinson, G. Richard Tucker, Leo van Lier, Melanie van den Hoven, Camilla Vásquez, Tony Vernon, Gergana Vitanova, Handoyo Puji Widodo, Amanda Wyland, Bedrettin Yazan, Amanda Yoshida, Jeehwan Yun, Lawrence Zhang, and Cecilia Guanfang Zhao.

If you wish to contribute a new reference to one of these reference lists, or an entirely new reference list, please send the reference or the new reference list in APA format to Thank you!

Please note: We have recently received feedback from some individuals who reported that they had trouble opening some of the reference lists below. These users reported that they attempted to access the reference lists from their Mac computers (PCs have not had any problems of which we know); in one instance Word’s spell checker was problematic, in another Safari was found to be the source of the error. Should you run into any of these issues (or others) when attempting to use one of the lists, please contact, and we will send you the list as a PDF.

Also, our reference lists seem to be best viewed using Internet Explorer or Firefox. Google Chrome tends to distort the formatting. You can preserve the formatting of the reference lists below by downloading the document and not using Google Drive to view/edit the resource.

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Accentedness and Attitudes Action Research
Administration of Language ProgramsAdvanced Language Learning
African-American Vernacular English Age Issues in Language Learning
Alternative and Authentic AssessmentAnxiety in Language Learning, Teaching, and Assessment
Arabic Learners of EnglishAssessing Young Learners in Language Education
Automated Essay Scoring and Electronic FeedbackAutomated Scoring of Speech
Autonomy and AgencyBeliefs of Teachers and Students about Language Learning and Teaching
Bias in Language AssessmentBilingualism, Bilingual Education, and Immersion Education
Blended LearningCase Study Research
Chaos and Complexity Theory Cloze Tests
Comics and Graphic Novels in Language Teaching and LearningCommon European Framework of Reference for Languages
Communication Strategies Communicative Language Teaching
Community Colleges and ESLCompliments and Responses
Content-based InstructionConversation Analysis
Cooperative LearningCorpora in Language Teaching and Learning
Corrective Feedback in L2 Speech Corrective Feedback in L2 Writing
Creativity in Language Teaching and LearningCritical Pedagogy and Critical Research
Critical ThinkingCulture in Language Learning and Teaching
Curriculum Development in Language Teaching Diagnostic Assessment
Dialogue Journals in Language Learning and Teacher Preparation Diary Studies in Language Learning and Teaching
Dictation in Language Teaching and LearningDigital Games and Gaming in Language Learning and Teaching
Digital LiteracyDiscourse and Discourse Analysis
DiversityDrama, Role Play, and Theater Techniques in Language Teaching and Learning
Dynamic Assessment Effective Teaching
Emergent Participatory Language Teaching and LearningEmotions in Language Learning and Teaching
Endangered LanguagesEnglish as a Lingua Franca
English as a Medium of InstructionEnglish Language Learning and Teaching in Korea
Ethics in Language Teaching and ResearchEthnography
Evaluation of TeachersExtensive Reading
Eye-Tracking ResearchFirst Language Use in L2 Teaching and Learning
FluencyForeign and Second Language Teaching in Kindergarten through Eighth Grade
Form-Focused InstructionFormative Assessment
Formulaic LanguageGender, Sexuality, and Language
Generalizability TheoryGenre
Gestures, Body Language, and Nonverbal Behavior in Language Teaching and Learning Globalization and Language
Grammar and Grammar InstructionHeritage Language Learners
History of EnglishIdentity and Language Learning and Teaching
Idioms in Language Learning and TeachingIELTS
Immigrant Issues in Language Learning and TeachingIncidental Vocabulary Acquisition
Individual Differences in Language LearningInnovations
IntelligibilityInteraction in Language Learning and Teaching
Interactive WhiteboardsIntercultural Communicative Competence
International English International English Language Testing System (IELTS)
International English Language Testing System (IELTS)International Teaching Assistants
Internationalization of Higher EducationInterviewing in Qualitative Research
IronyLanguage and Development
Language and Education in PakistanLanguage Awareness
Language Classroom ResearchLanguage Ideology
Language in Business, Industry, and the Professions Language Learners with Special Needs
Language Learning and Teaching in KoreaLanguage Learning Aptitude
Language PlayLanguage Policy and Language Planning
Language ProficiencyLanguage Socialization
Language Teacher EducationLeadership
Learning Styles and StrategiesLectures in English
Lesson Planning Linguistic Imperialism
Linguistic LandscapeListening Assessment
Listening Comprehension in Language Learning and Teaching Literacy in L2 Learning
Literature in L2 Teaching and Learning Materials in Second and Foreign Language Learning and Teaching
Memory in Language Learning and TeachingMentoring in Language Teaching
Meta-Analysis in Language ResearchMetaphor
Methodology and Teaching MethodsMixed-methods Research
Mobile-Assisted Language LearningMontessori Method in L2 Teaching and Learning
Motivation in Language Learning Movies, Videos, Radio, and Television in Language Learning and Teaching
Multicultural and Crosscultural PopulationsMultilingualism and Plurilingualism
Multiple Intelligences Multiple-Choice Test Items
Narratives in Language ResearchNeeds Assessment
No Child Left Behind Non-native Speaking Language Teachers
Nursing EducationObservation
Oral Proficiency InterviewsOutput in Second and Foreign Language Learning
Overlapping Speech and InterruptionsPlagiarism
PolitenessPortfolio Assessment
Pragmatics Professional Development of Language Teachers
Project-based Learning and Teaching Pronunciation
Qualitative ResearchQuantitative Research Methods
Questionnaires and Surveys Questions in Language Learning and Teaching
Race and Ethnicity in Language Teaching and LearningRaters and Rating Scales in Language Testing
Reading Assessment Reading in L2 Contexts
Reflective Teaching and LearningRefugee Concerns
Schema Theory in Language Teaching and Assessment Seating Arrangements in Classrooms
Second Language Acquisition Self-assessment in Language Learning and Teaching
Self-efficacy in Language Learning and TeachingSelf-Repair in Speech
Service LearningSociocultural Theory & Language Learning and Teaching
Songs in Language Learning and Teaching Speaking Assessment
Speaking in L2 ContextsSpecific Purpose Language Assessment
Standard and Nonstandard LanguagesStandards in Language Teaching and Assessment
Story Retelling Study Abroad and Language Learning
Summarizing and ParaphrasingSupervision of Teachers
Task-based Learning and Teaching Teacher Cognition and Decision Making
Teacher KnowledgeTeacher Research
Teaching Language to Young LearnersTeam Teaching
Teasing and SarcasmTechnology in Language Assessment
Technology in Language Learning and Teaching Test Preparation
The Practicum, Student Teachers, and Cooperating TeachersTOEFL (Test of English as a Foreign Language)
Transcription in Language Teaching and ResearchTranslanguaging
Tutoring in Language Learning and TeachingValidity and Validation in Language Assessment
Vocabulary Learning in Teaching and AssessmentVoice in Writing
Washback and Test ImpactWikipedia
Willingness to CommunicateWorld Englishes and World Languages
Writing Assessment Writing for Academic Purposes
Writing in L2 Contexts Yiddish